19ce8150-9a50-4b1c-b6ed-87a0f991e5fd Triathlon Top Performance 1,1 2
The Triathlon is a demanding multi-sport challenge that requires high aerobic fitness and muscular endurance, combined with efficient technique in all 3 disciplines. So to be successful you need to plan meticulously as well as train hard. Mental preparation and strategic pacing are crucial to overcome fatigue, pain, and self-doubt.


The basic structure captured in this template is tried and tested: it works for Olympic athletes and beginners alike. Take a few moments to have a look around it: check out the major goals and how they are broken down into subgoals.


Think too about defining some milestones along the way – and how you are going to celebrate passing them. In a long campaign this really helps to keep you motivated, especially at top level where there may be long gaps between race victories.


To use this template:  

  1. Rename this central goal to reflect your Main Goal: make it inspirational! With the talent, time and money you bring to the game, you want to achieve as much as possible, whether you are aiming for an Olympic medal or the club championship. 
  2. Go through each subgoal and update them with your specific goals. Set short-term goals for each training period, define specific action plans for each discipline and track your progress as you go.
  3. Prioritize by adjusting the Importance of subgoals by dragging their borders or use the slider in the panel
  4. Define success criteria in each goal (quantitative our qualitative) and write them in the Notes
  5. Mark your current state using the Progress sliders in the outermost goals.
  6.  Review frequently: update your goals and priorities as circumstances change.

(Hint: use ‘Center On’ to zoom in on a specific goal like Cycle).


EXAMPLE TARGET TIMES

 

Olympic Distances
BasicTarget
Swim 1.5 km0:30:000:25:00
Transition 10:00:100:00:05
Cycle 40 km
1:15:00
1:00:00
Transition 2
0::00:10
0:00:05
Run 10 km
0:50:000:40:00 
Total 
2:35:202:05:10


A short note about Time

The importance of any goal can only be set in relation to a given timeframe. Bear that in mind when you define the relative importances. The timeframe might be a month, a year or a full 4 year campaign.


Some days you might focus on only one goal: that will bring some progress in that area, but it does not change its importance in the overall timeframe. Setting the importances and being able to see them at all times will give you peace of mind and prevent you being overwhelmed by the complexity of the challenge. 


Metrics

You must be as specific as possible when you describe your training goals and your process and outcome goals for competitions: you need to know when you have achieved them! Decide how you are going to measure your progress in every area: for some goals (like Budget and Fitness) this is quite easy; for others (like your transitions) you will have to be subjective and imaginative, especially in areas where you can only compare your performance to others. 


Everything else

Of course this goalscape only deals with your Triathlon challenge. Even if you are a full time athlete, there are other areas in your life where you have to spend some time. Many people find it very useful to build a ‘Life’ goalscape to capture everything they have to do in one central place. If you choose to do so, you can copy this entire model into your Life goalscape as one of your major subgoals (along with your goals for Work, Home, Family, etc).

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Flights, ferries, hire car, transport bike and other kit.

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Bring own non-wheat food

Oats

Honey

Cinnamon

Banana

Blueberries

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Ocado order in

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Clean out picnic box

Put ice block in freezer

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Bring kettle

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The sleep the night before (Friday) is the most important one!

- Blinds

- Ear plugs

- Sleeping tablets


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As required

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Increase salt intake during days before (bananas / mango, citrus fruit)

Official swim training 7-9 am?

Bike racking 5-6 pm? Bring food as may take a long time!

DON'T take Imodium before bed!

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Might have to queue for 30min in the morning to get into start area so arrive at 4:30 am to get into queue

Go to toilet straight away before lines get too long

Lots of bodyglide on to help the wetsuit come off!

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Check for injury & bike insurance

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Call Adrian Flux 0844 888 5544 to change dates

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Covered under Churchill Home Ins. Policy

- Accidental damage

- Theft if locked to permanant structure

- Not in competition

- Outside of home

- In Europe for up to 60 days

- Valued at £1,500

- Excess £100

Cost £45

Cycleguard quote £200 for 12 months

but van needs to have Thatcham, etc

Get covered under house insurance up to value of £1000

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When you have made a basic outline in the logistics and gear subgoals, you should have a rough idea of how much money you will need to achieve your goal.

Once you have raised all the money you need (including provision for contingencies), you can complete-and-delete this goal. See how all your other goals grow, retaining their importance relative to each other.

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Goalscape will soon add a budgeting function; until then you can use a spreadsheet. If you upload it to Google docs your whole team can share it.

Don't ask anyone for money if you do not know how much you will need as a:

  • best case
  • normal case
  • worst case
  • ]]>
    You need to have a proper plan for this. Where your money comes from depends on your situation. Without money you will always be frustrated, so being good at raising money is easily as important as being a good athlete. You should aim for a good mix of financing that does not require too much administration or time.


    Your best selling argument is your central goal. What is it you want to achieve? How will participating in it help anyone who funds you?:

    • Will it make them proud (especially your family, friends and local club)?
    • Will it support your sponsors’ messages and help to spread them? 
    • Will it help them to achieve their goals (national federation)?


    You may have to work really hard at this, so focus your efforts on activities you can do well before the regatta season starts. Keep your spirits up: the next call you make might land you the perfect sponsor.


    If you cannot ensure the finance early you may need to adjust your regatta programme. Spend the time you save working on your budget for next year!

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    1hr run on Wednesday - feeling ok!

    2.5hr / 40mile cycle with Spike and his mates Nigel and Andrew? Very high heartrate in the heat ... still got virus.

    Then 1.5hr / 10mile run up and down hills in New Forest.

    Feeling good afterwards

    Total Hours = 6 / 10

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    Monday 40mins on gym bike then 90min yoga = 1hr30min

    Tuesday set up turbo trainer

    Wedesday 1hr turbo trainer

    Thurs nothing

    Friday 1hr swim with Mike

    Saturday 4hr bike

    Drunk Sat night so nothing Sunday

    Total 7.0hr

    Dublin Long Weekend

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    2hr turbo

    1hr swim

    1hr yoga

    1hr30 run

    Total 5.5/10

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    Mon - Nothing

    Tues - Nothing

    Wed - 2hrs - Cycle to / from work + Yoga

    Thurs - 90min - run

    Fri 1hr15 - turbo (30 warm up. 15 x 1min30 HR160-173)

    Sat 30min - TriSportUK bike fitting & swim

    Sun 5hrs - 50m bike + 14m run

    Total 10.25 / 10

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    Nice Recce

    Tues - 60min run

    Wed - 60min run

    Friday - 38m bike

    Saturday - 109m on bike of which 97m of Ironman course at average 15.2mph = 7hr20min for 112m

    Thurs / Friday - lots of snot

    Total 11.5/10

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    Mick Bourne 200

    1hr run

    1hr30 swim

    8hr bike

    Total 10.5/10

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    2 x 45min run to / from work

    90min swim

    3.5hr bike

    2hr on turbo

    2hrhr run

    Total 10.5/10

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    1hr cycle to / from work

    1hr15min lake swim

    1hr turbo + run to & from work

    1hr15min lake swim

    1hr15min turbo

    2hr30 Triathlon

    Total 10/10

    Windsor Triathlon

    Start 0735 / Wave 21 / Age 35-39

    Race Number 1592

    Plan Saturday

    - Arrive 0930 for 1000 parking SL4 5EH

    - Course talk 1130am @ Nokia cabin

    - Register 1300

    - Rack bike & helmet

    - Cycle course on MTB / 2nd helmet

    Plan Sunday

    - 0430 leave house

    - 0600 arrive Windsor

    - 0735 start

    Parking

    - At Windsor Boys School, SL4 5EH

    - Inform attendants leaving overnight

    - Open Saturday 10am to 6pm

    - Open Sunday at 4.30am

    - Cost £10

    Registration

    - Photo ID

    - BTF licence £5 on the day

    - Open 11am – 4.20pm

    - Dealt with by surname

    - Surname I–P, 1pm to 3pm

    - Security will be in place overnight

    Registration Procedure

    - Proceed to numbered desk

    - Show race licence and photo ID

    - Pick up number, timing chip, swim cap

    Bike Racking

    - Saturday 11am – 4.35pm

    - Bike + Helmet only

    - No bags or race kit

    Timing

    - Collect chip at registration

    - Attach to ankle as low down as possible.

    - On the opposite side to your bike chain - If lost charged £35

    Run Numbering

    - On front for the run

    - Attached at all four corners

    - Please bring your own 8 pins

    - Number belts can be used

    - Security wristband

    Bike Numbering

    - Two numbers for your bike

    - One on bike’s top tube

    - Long double number around seat post

    - Numbered sticker for front cycle helmet

    - Bring zip ties

    Start Times

    - 7.35am Wave 21 Men age 39

    Swim

    - Race numbers underneath wetsuit

    - Swim close to Eton bank upstream

    - Keep the buoys on your left

    - Round turn buoy at Relief Road Bridge - - Return along centre of the river

    - Coke to kill germs

    Bike

    - Recce: Barry’s Cafe/Barry Ave 10am Sat

    - Helmet on before touching bike

    - No drafting = min 7m spacking min

    Run

    - Three loops

    Other

    - Toilets at Tourist Reception Centre

    - Photos on www.sportcam.net

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    Mon - 1hr Yoga

    Tues - 45min run to ferry + home

    Wed - 45min run to ferry + home

    Thurs - Cycle to and from work + massage

    Fri - 90min turbo

    Sat - 1hr swim + 4:45 bike + 2hr run

    Total = 14.5/10

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    Rest / Taper

    Endurance fitness takes a long time to build and is lost relatively slowly, whereas speed comes quickly with high-intensity work but is lost more readily if neglected

    Three days before an event of this distance, the focus needs to be on ensuring your body's carb stores are full and that you are well hydrated. The last training sessions of your taper are likely to be easy and relaxed, but a short one to three minute hard effort during each of your last few rides can help to drive carbs into your muscles. Make sure you use a carb drink to make this happen.

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    On Bike

    2 bottles full Infinit Ride

    1 x Torq bar

    2 x Caramel bar

    2 x SIS Burner Gel

    2 x SIS Gel

    Mints!

    Diarrhea tablets

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    Glide shoulders, neck and calves


    Speedos

    Wetsuit


    Goggles

    Demist spray


    Cap (over goggles)

    Earplugs

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    Aim 1hr20

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    Swimming in Rough Water

    - Summarise article


    Swimming Tips

    - Punch hand into water beside head

    - Reach

    - Lie on outstretched arm

    - Break wrist at full extension to grab water and stop wasting energy pushing downwards / lifting body

    - Pull with forearm not just hand

    - Pull down the body centreline

    - Keep hand pointing vertically downwards

    - Push water backwards beyond hips

    - Swim in front quadrant for stroke focus

    - Try to time hip rotation for more power


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    Check water temperature 


    http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/cgi-app/watertemperature?LANG=en&CONT=euro&GEBIET=0004


    No wetsuit if water temp > 24degC


    Currently 20degC @ 23 June


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    Check you have the right goggles


    Tinted or mirrored if low sun


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    Pre-Race Checks

    - Check course & mid swim exit

    - Sight easy transit for return leg

    - Plan route to transition

    Warmup

    - Alternate few deep breaths with a dozen short to get used to shock

    - Swing arms and jump up / down to get heartrate up

    Start

    - Start front and to the side

    During

    - Focus on the performance / on making every stroke count. Dont think about the outcome

    - Increase pace around buoys to get away from congestion

    - Use legs in last 200m and wiggle toes and ankles to get blood flowing

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    Most common causes:

    Do cramp stretches

    1) Inadequate electrolyte & dehydration

    2) Low muscle glycogen levels

    3) Extreme environmental conditions

    4) High levels of muscle fatigue and tension due to a lack of flexibility or a high state of anxiety

    When a swimmer is kicking hard or is unusually tense (as in an open water swim while fighting for position) or has to “work” to point the toes because of limited flexibility, fatigue in the muscle group rises.

    Never TRY to point the toes when swimming and/or kicking, as this only increases the tension and makes effective kicking harder. Instead, with increased flexibility a swimmer can just let his ankles “flop around”, resulting in little tension in the achilles tendon and an even lower risk of cramping.

    http://teampursuitfitness.homestead.com/articles/cramping.pdf

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    T1

    Aim 5min

    Flat coke

    Towel

    Fresh water bottle for wash down

    Anti bacterial wipes

    Glide & Chamois cream - major area of chafing & pain is where bollix skin starts i.e. underneath near perineum area, not in front / sides

    Sunscreen (everywhere inc. legs) P20

    Bib shorts

    Chest strap

    Jersey

    Socks

    Shoes

    Eur50 just in case

    Race belt

    Garmin watch

    Glasses

    Helmet

    Gloves

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    Aim 7hr 30

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    Bike Special Requirements

    Banana

    Gels

    Bar

    Mannatech tablets x 4

    Vitamin tablet?

    1 x Camelbak Full

    2 x refill powder for bottles

    1 x Camelbak refill

    2 x Torq

    1 x Caramel

    3 x Gel

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    Get setup at Trisport UK

    Not using in the end ...

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    Descending / Cornering Notes


    1. Brake to the Apex

    Anticipating maximum speed for the apex is difficult and because the path is not a circular arc, speed must be trimmed all the way to that point. There is room to brake substantially during maximum cornering because the lean angle changes as the square of the speed, braking can rapidly reduce the angle and allow even more braking. For this reason skilled racers nearly always apply both brakes into the apex of turns.


    2. Follow Asymmetrical Path

    The path through a curve is not symmetrical for a bicycle, because it

    can slow down much faster than it can regain speed. Thus the trajectory is naturally asymmetric. Brakes are generally used to the apex (that is usually not the middle) of the curve.


    3. Use legs for suspension

    The reason for this is twofold. Vision will become blurred if the saddle is not unloaded, and traction will be compromised if the tires are not bearing with uniform force on the

    road while rolling over bumps


    4. Keep Knee In

    Any body weight that is not centered over the bicycle (leaning the bike or

    sticking out a knee) puts a side load on the bicycle, and side loads cause steering motions over uneven road.


    5. Keep Focus on Your Path

    Central vision should be focused on the pavement where the tire will track, while allowing peripheral vision, with its low resolution and good sensitivity to motion, to detect obstacles and possible oncoming traffic.


    6. Particularly When Following

    When following another bicycle downhill, the same technique is even more important, because by focusing on the leading vehicle, pavement and road alignment information is being obscured giving a tendency to mentally become a passenger of that vehicle. Always look

    ahead of the vehicle, observing it only peripherally.


    7. Braking Heat

    Going slowly does not help, unless speed is reduced below walking pace.

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    Get setup at Trisport UK

    - Focus on dragging toe backwards

    - Focus on upping power from left leg

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    Get setup at Trisport UK

    185 - 195 watts sustained average achieved 5:53 time?

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    Drop your heels

    - Especially on the downward push

    - Brings more of the hamstrings (the muscles in the back of the thigh) and glutes (the muscles in the butt) into play

    Change working muscle groups

    - Periodically / for 30 pedal strokes

    - Drop / raise

    - Shift forward and back on the seat

    - Stand up for a brief interval and then sit back down (use bigger gear)

    Relaxed grip on the handlebars

    - Les numbness in the hands

    - Less tension in neck, shoulders and chest = better breathing

    Don’t coast after the crest

    - squeeze waste products into bloodstream where they can be carried away

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    Fit new tyres

    Michelin Pro Race recommended

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    Final Gearing Choice: 53/39 - 27/12

    Camellini Hire: 52/39 - 23/12

    Spike suggestion: 50/38 - 27/13

    Bloke found 42-23 too hard

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    Borderline L and XL - gone for L but need to double check

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    Practise changing tyres / puncture repair


    Spare tyres

    CO2 canister

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    Planet X ordered ...

    Kinetic-One

    Giant TCR Advanced 2 2009-10

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    Move back as far as possible to spare calves

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    Comfort is essential!


    Change to MTB saddle?




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    2 x 0.75l bottles (1500ml)

    1 water bottle in jersey

    XXXX 1 water bottle on tri-bar (500ml)

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    2 on bike

    XXX 1 on tri-bars

    XXX 2 on saddle

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    Ordered Ironman Tube Box

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    Check watch lasts long enough

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    Practice taking off and putting on back of shirt and / or on helmet

    Stop sweat ...

    Cut potato in half and rub on both sides of lens for hydrophobic coating

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    Buy white top

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    Upload course onto Garmin

    Speedbumps

    Tourette su Loop

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    Check descents

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    Identify any

    - Hills (esp at start / finish)

    - Hairpins

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    T2

    Aim 5min

    Sunscreen (Cream)

    Glide

    Shorts

    Top

    Compression socks

    Runners

    Hat

    Hydropel

    Belt for race number (holds gels)

    Garmin watch

    Chest strap

    2 x Normal Gels

    2 x Caffeine Gels

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    5hr

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    Run Special Requirements

    In case get wet

    - Vaseline

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    1. Concentrate on running lightly

    2. Focus on the feet

    3. Dont drift - use arms to drive fast legs


    Running Fast & Injury Free

    Gordon Pirie


    Land on the Forefoot

    Running equals springing through the air, landing elastically on the forefoot with a flexed knee. The nerves conveying tactile sensation from the foot are predominantly located in the forefoot. When the ball of the foot touches the ground, these nerves "alert" the muscles of the legs, which involuntarily react to absorb the shock of landing. The runner will make use of the body's own efficient shock absorbers - the arch of the foot, the calf muscles, and the quadriceps muscles in the thighs - and in this way reduce the stress experienced by the heel, shin bone, knee joint, thigh bone and hip joint. 


    Make contact directly below the body

    On landing, the foot should be directly below the body. 


    Move over the foot 

    As the weight of the runner's body rides over the foot, the entire sole will rest flat on the ground. The runner will generate more power and cover more ground with each stride by taking advantage of the springiness and power of the muscles in the feet and forelegs as well as the thighs. 


    Body position

    Don't lean forwards! A feeling of "sitting" with the seat down "like a duck" is employed with the body upright. An athlete who runs correctly will actually appear to be shorter than other runners of the same height who are not running properly. This "low" running posture allows one to stay in contact with the ground longer, and makes it possible to generate more power during each contact power-phase with the ground.


    Work the arms

    Arm power is directly proportional to leg power. Greater mass of the legs and their powerful action will require a very vigorous action in the lighter, weaker arms for this balance to be maintained. Arms must work hard! 


    Quicken tempo

    Try to maintain a quicker tempo than is natural - the correct running tempo is between three and five steps per second. Faster speeds will result in a longer stride, but a longer stride will not necessarily result in faster speeds.


    Don’t let your legs drift 

    Get your feet back onto the ground as quickly as possible. This can be achieved by strong arm-stopping, which causes the foot to land quickly but lightly on the ball/front of the foot. Do not wait for the leg and foot to drift away and land on its own out in front whenever it wants. Make it snappy and quick. Do not float along. 


    Focus & concentrate!!

    A conscious effort must be made to run as lightly as possible. Athlete must work hard to imprint proper techniques and attitudes onto his mental approach to running. Only by constant attention to the basics of sound technique can the developing athlete hope to make these fundamentals part of his athletic second nature. You have to train yourself to concentrate on every step of every run.


    Particular focus on the feet

    The runner must be aware of what his or her feet and knees are doing at this early stage. Use feet with a feeling of control - and in a vigorous action that includes each and every muscle of the foot.


    Get synchronised

    The athlete must constantly pay attention to his tempo, and strive for a quick, smooth, well co-ordinated running action. Athlete should attempt to run (landing on the balls of the feet) using the same quick, sharp synchronised action in both the arms and legs. If the runner has these two elements in proper synchronisation (accomplished only through practice), they should feel themselves flying along further with each step yet travelling close to the ground (without lifting the knees too high or extending the foreleg too far in front). 


    Breathe with quick, short puffs

    Running equals being out of breath, so breathing through the mouth is obligatory. Breathing should match the quick, sharp rhythm your arms and legs have established. Breathe out with quick, short puffs, almost panting like a dog. Do not breathe in deeply!


    Shoes

    I advise all my trainees to wear the very lightest shoes they can find for training. These shoes should have the same amount of padding at the front under the toes as at the rear, with no wedged or flared heels. It is essential that the material under the toes of the foot be at least as thick as anywhere else in the sole, 


    Training

    Like any other aspect of training, the athlete's body must be allowed to adjust to the new experience of running correctly. With proper technique, the muscles of the feet and legs, as well as those of the arms and shoulders, will have to work extremely hard. Soreness and fatigue are the natural result, until muscle strength and fitness develop.

    • Quality beats quantity; the speed at which you practice the most will be your best speed
    • Speed kills endurance; endurance kills speed.
    • Each individual can only execute one "Program" at any one time
    • An individual can change his or her "Program" only by a determined, educational effort
    • Over-emphasis on mileage in training causes injuries especially "long slow distance" (LSD)

    Without the constant maintenance of a proper balance in training - including sprinting, interval training, weights, hills and long-running - a runner's body simply will not adapt to the stresses it encounters on a day-to-day basis.


    Miscellaneous

    Static stretching exercises cause injuries!

    Any and all additions to the body damage running skill.

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    1. Water on head and chest

    2. Avoid protein


    Running in the Heat


    When hot the blood goes to the skin for cooling the body as well as to the working muscles. This increases the workload of the heart and the exercising heart rate. Intensity of exercise will need to be reduced when running in the heat.


    Before

    - Salt on foods + bananas + citrus fruit

    - Hyperhydrate 30min before running


    During

    - 0.5 - 1.0 litre / hour while running

    - Avoid excess protein intake. Protein metabolism produces extra heat.

    - Pour water over your head and chest.


    While running in the heat, monitor your condition for signs of weakness, dizziness, nausea, disorientation, cessation of sweating and piloerection, the standing up of body hairs. If these signs occur, stop running and start the appropriate treatment. 


    Heat Exhaustion 

    Skin is usually cool and pale, but the person is probably still sweating. Body temperature is not elevated to dangerous levels (under 106F). Treat by rest in a cool environment, ingestion of cool liquids and cooling the body externally with water or ice.


    Heat Stroke 

    Body's temperature regulating system fails resulting in excessively high body temperature. Symptoms are dry, warm and red skin + body core temperature over 106F. Start cooling the body with ice packs and cold water. The person may or may not be conscious. Cool liquids may be consumed if the person is conscious.

     


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    Run with new runners / check

    Don't run through the showers

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    Between the toes ... 


    NOT on outside of socks!

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    Compression socks?

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    Check running in cycling shirt

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    White hat

    or

    White visor

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    Any injuries

    1. Get medical advice re managing healing/rehab and do not overtrain 
    2. Monitor progress/pain and only gradually increase training to previous level
    3. Pay attention to diet (see below)


    Avoid:

    - Processed foods

    - Animal protein esp. red meat and chicken


    Do Eat

    - Omega 3 (salmon, sardines and herring)

    - Beans and soy foods

    - Plenty of fruits and vegetables 

    - Ginger

    - Turmeric

    - White, green or oolong tea


    Do

    - Use good-quality extra-virgin olive oil

    - Minimize spikes in blood sugar

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    McMillan Calculator

    Theory says 44min/10k = 3hr26 Mara = 7:51 / mile

    Aim 3hrs55 (inc. 5min stop) = 8:57 / mile or 8:46 / mile while running

    5 Tips for Marathon Pacing

    More than 90 percent of marathoners run the second half of the marathon significantly slower than the first. This is not ideal. You'll get your best marathon results if you pace yourself so that you run the second half at the same pace as the first. Here are five tips to help you pace yourself better in your next marathon.

    1. Run More Than One Marathon

    New research shows that pacing in running races is controlled primarily by the subconscious brain. Throughout each race, your brain calculates the fastest pace you can sustain without endangering your life and uses feelings of fatigue and reduced electrical output to your muscles to ensure that you run no faster. The more experience you have as a runner, the more reliable these calculations become.

    Everyone agrees that nothing can prepare you for the fatigue you experience in the final miles of your first marathon. But after you have had this experience, you are better able to pace yourself effectively in future marathons. Most of this learning happens on a subconscious level. Your brain-body makes its way through your second marathon with a better sense of how you should feel at any given point in the race.

    So treat your first marathon as a sort of experiment. Pace yourself cautiously but not fearfully and see what happens, knowing that, no matter what happens, you will pace yourself better in the next marathon for having done the first.

    2. Set Appropriate Time Goals

    Because the marathon distance is so extreme, few runners are able to effectively pace their way through a marathon entirely by feel, as they do in shorter races. You have to hold so much back when running a marathon that the early miles feel very easy--so easy that you could run five or ten seconds per mile faster or slower and it would not feel noticeably harder or easier. But a pace difference of just five or 10 seconds per mile in the first half of a marathon could make the difference between hanging on and falling apart in the second half. So choosing an appropriate time goal, which in turn gives you an appropriate target pace, is very important.

    Past marathon performances are the best source of information to use in setting future marathon time goals. In many cases, the most sensible goal is to beat your previous best time by a slight margin. How much of an improvement is realistic depends on how much better your fitness is during your current marathon ramp-up than it was in previous ones. Comparing your performance in recent workouts against your performance in similar workouts done at the same point in past marathon training cycles will give you a good feel for how high to reach.

    Another good source of information for setting marathon time/pace goals is performance in shorter races. A race time equivalence table or calculator can be used to generate a predicted marathon time based on a finish time in a shorter event, for example a 10K. There's a good race time equivalence table in Daniels' Running Formula and a good calculator at www.mcmillanrunning.com.

    3. Train hard

    Like marathons themselves, but to a slightly lesser degree, hard workouts serve to calibrate the teleoanticipation mechanism. Hard workouts expose your body to fatigue in ways that are similar to how marathons do, so they teach your body how fast and how far you can go before fatigue will occur. This internalized feel for your limits will help you pace yourself more effectively on race day.

    The more marathon-specific a workout is, the more it will help you in this regard. Therefore, in the final weeks of training for a marathon you should do a handful of very challenging workouts that mimic both the speed and the endurance demands of your coming marathon. Here are three peak marathon workout formats that I recommend:

    Long, Hard Run

    1 mile easy

    20 miles @ marathon pace + 20-30 seconds per mile

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    A high heart rate indicates dehyrdration; a low heart rate is an indicator of low nutrition

    60-80g / hr on bike is really max possible

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    And on bike, where ...

    Powerbar / Infinit

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    High heart rate indicates dehyrdration

    Low heart rate is an indicator of low nutrition

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    On bike

    Every 20km water, Infinit bottles, Coca bottles, Banana and Gels

    On Run

    StartX-X-X-TurnX-X-X-XEnd

    Four refuel stops per leg spaced at 1.7km

    200ml cups

    Approx 6 stops per lap / hour so one approx every ten minutes

    1 cup every second stop = approx. 800ml per hour

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    Infinit ordered

    Call ordered

    1st Endurance

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